一.six major losses in the production process
In the production process, the ideal state of production or equipment should be: 100% time to produce 100% qualified products at 100% speed! However, the fact is often not ideal, and there will be various losses in the actual production process, which can be summarized into the following 6 types:
The figure above provides a good roadmap for managers to observe the production line or production equipment, namely:
Step 1: do you plan to run the equipment first?
If the equipment is scheduled to shut down, this is a loss. The plan stops why saying is a kind of loss, because equipment is fixed asset, no matter move, do not move, produce depreciation. The more equipment used, the less depreciation amortization. If the equipment is scheduled to run, enter step 2:
Step 2: is the device set up?
If you don't set it up, you have to replace it, which is another loss. Equipment setting refers to that if the previous shift produces product A and the next shift produces product B, different products may require different equipment status, such as machine change, line change, mold change, fixture adjustment, etc., which is commonly known as type change. There is no production during mold change time, so it is a loss. If the device is set, enter step 3:
Step 3: is the device capable of running?
Failure to operate indicates a failure. Or there was no failure, a failure in the operation. When something goes wrong, it has to be fixed, which is another big loss. If none of the above three losses exists, can the production be started?
Step 4: is the device running?
Production has three basic elements: human, machine and material. Equipment is intact, but also depends on the presence of people, mental state and technology how. People and machine are all right, but also to see whether the material is ready, there is no abnormal. Equipment "wait person, wait material" it is the 4th kind of loss.
Step 5: is the equipment producing qualified products?
People, machines and things are ready to produce, the key to see how the quality of the products produced, the production of unqualified products called quality loss.
Step 6: is the device running at full speed?
The equipment has three speeds: design speed (rated speed), standard speed and actual speed. The deviation of the actual velocity from the standard velocity is called velocity loss.
Therefore, the six major losses measured by time are: planned downtime, type change time, fault repair time, waiting loss (such as downtime and waiting for materials), quality loss and speed loss.
二. Reduce 6 major losses through full staff equipment maintenance (TPM)
TPM is a system-wide activity that all employees strive to increase the effective time, improve product quality, enhance safety and reduce equipment cost through continuous improvement of equipment operation. TPM is first and foremost a shift in thinking from "I operate, you maintain", "I maintain, you design", "I design, you operate" to "we are responsible for our equipment, our factories and our future".
1. Establish the concept of "zero fault"
The cause of the decline in equipment efficiency is due to the "fault", the state of the equipment should be zero fault, so all the maintenance of equipment must start from "zero fault".
1.1 the equipment was malfunctioned by human beings
1.2 once people's ideas and actions are changed, the equipment can achieve zero failure
1.3 the concept of "equipment must fail" should be changed into the concept of "no equipment failure, zero failure".
2. Five countermeasures for zero fault
In order to reduce equipment failure and achieve the goal of "zero failure", the task of the manufacturing and equipment maintenance department is to take five countermeasures:
In the process of realizing zero fault, we should not only have the spirit of "never give up until we reach the goal", but also pay attention to the method and be good at "breaking the casserole and asking for the end". For example, equipment downtime:
Content from: zhou yun's "5 ways to cut factory costs" book
Notice: next Friday (July 10th), we will continue to introduce "how to eliminate 7 kinds of waste in the production site", please pay attention!