01 Industry-related definitions and classifications
Motorcycle is a means of transportation, driven by gasoline engine, by hand to control the front wheel steering two-wheeled or three-wheeled, light, flexible, fast running, widely used in patrol, passenger and cargo transportation, and also used as sports equipment. According to the speed and displacement (power), can be divided into mopeds and motorcycles; According to the model, can be divided into scooter, bending beam car and straddle bike; According to the structure, it can be divided into two-wheeled motorcycle, regular three-wheeled motorcycle and side three-wheeled motorcycle, etc. According to the direction of use, it can be divided into street cars, road racing motorcycles, off-road motorcycles, cruise cars, station wagons, etc.
02 Industrial chain
According to the Report of China Motorcycle Market Development Status Research and Investment Strategy Analysis (2023-2030) released by Guanyande.com, the upstream industry chain of motorcycle is mainly raw materials, parts and accessories, among which raw materials are mainly steel, aluminum, etc. Parts and accessories mainly include internal combustion engine, engine, instrument panel, body frame, tires, bearings, gears, etc. Midstream for all kinds of motorcycle vehicle manufacturing; Downstream is mainly government agencies, individual consumers and export motorcycle consumption market.
1. Upstream market
(1) Raw materials
A product made of aluminum and other alloying elements. In recent years, the output of aluminum products fluctuates. In 2021, China's aluminum production reached 61.052 million tons, up 7.4% year on year. From January to November 2022, China's aluminum production was 56.562 million tons, down 1.1% year-on-year.
(2) Spare parts and accessories
Tires are ground rolling circular elastic rubber products assembled on a variety of vehicles or machinery. Usually installed on the metal rim, can support the body, buffer external impact, achieve contact with the road and ensure the vehicle's driving performance.
In 2022, due to the impact of the epidemic, a large number of automobile enterprises are in a state of suspension and production, and the demand for tires in supporting links is hit. At the same time, the operating rate of tire enterprises continues to decline, and the overall domestic tire production shows a shrinking trend. According to the National Bureau of Statistics, by the end of December 2022, the output of rubber tires in China was 856,0030 million, a year-on-year decrease of 5 percent.
Output of engine of our country basically maintained stable in recent years. Statistics show that China's engine output in 2021 will reach 268.0665 million kW, up 2.1 percent year on year. Up to September 2022, the output of our engine was 170700.6 million kW.
2. Midstream market
After years of decline, China's domestic motorcycle industry is recovering strongly in 2022, with double growth in market production and sales. However, the situation of our motorcycle industry is still complex and severe (international and domestic macro situation is complex and changeable, the price of raw material remains high). Data show that the output of motorcycles in China in 2022 was 21.22 million, an increase of 5.43% compared with the previous year; Sales were 21.42 million units, up 6.07% from the previous year.
At present, the motorcycle market of our country mainly consists of two - wheel motorcycle and fuel - oil motorcycle. Statistics show that in 2022, the production and sales volume of China's second wheel motorcycle were 19.0111 million and 19.1316 million respectively; The production and sales of three-wheeled motorcycles were 2.2811 million and 2.2884 million, respectively. The production and sales of fuel motorcycle were 13.6815 million and 13.7873 million, respectively. The production and sales of electric motorcycles were 7,610,700 and 7,632,700, respectively.
From the model details, the two - wheeled motorcycle is divided into straddle bike, scooter and bending beam car. Data show that in 2022, the production and sales volume of China's straddling bikes are 7.5065 million and 7.677 million, respectively, down 17.7% and 15.84% year-on-year. The production and sales of scooters were 9,932,400 and 9,987,800, down 13.53% and 13.07% year-on-year; The production and sales of beam bending cars were 1.4574 million and 1.460700 million, down 36.04% and 35.85% year-on-year.
From the displacement point of view, 125 series and 150 series motorcycles are more popular among consumers. Data show that in 2022, the production and sales volume of 50 series were 544,600 and 583,700, respectively, down 33.82% and 28.41% year-on-year. The production and sales of 110 series were 1.469,700 and 1.520,600, respectively, down 30.62% and 27.83% year-on-year. The production and sales of 125 series were 4.903,700 and 4.936,100, respectively, down 14.35% and 14.02% year on year.
The production and sales volume of 150 series were 3,005,600 and 3,014,200, respectively, down 17.95% and 17.69% year-on-year. The production and sales of the 250 series were 1.339 million and 1.3529 million, respectively, down 3.91 percent and 2.96 percent year-on-year. The production and sales of motorcycles with large displacement above 250cc (excluding 250cc) were 551,100 and 553,400, respectively, up 47.51% and 44.68% year-on-year.
3. Downstream market
In 2022, the production and operation of some enterprises will be affected to a certain extent due to the continuous weakening of international demand and the impact of the epidemic in China. The quantity and amount of motorcycles exported by China are weaker than last year, but still at a historical high level compared with previous years. According to China Customs data, China's motorcycle export volume in 2022 was 26.48 million units, down 24.36% from the previous year; Motorcycle exports amounted to $11.958 billion, down 2.92 percent from the previous year.
At present 125 series, 150 series, 110 series, 250 series and 50 series are among the top five series of motorcycle exports. Data show that the export volume of 125-series motorcycles in 2022 was 264.98, down 12.07% compared with the previous year; The export volume of 150 series motorcycles was 1,952,600, down 15.32% from the previous year; 110 series motorcycle exports 1.06656 million, down 24.71%; 250 series motorcycle exports 894,500, an increase of 0.27% compared with last year; The export volume of 50 series motorcycles was 322,800 units, down 37.6 percent from the previous year.
03 Industry competition
Although our motorcycle research and development technology continues to improve in recent years, the international brand awareness is also improving, but domestic motorcycle brands are mainly concentrated in the field of low-end motorcycle, the industry competition is more fierce, and there is still a gap with the international brand.
At present, our motorcycle market mainly divides into three echelons. The first echelon is Yadi Holdings, Yangtze River, Zongshen, Longxin; In the second tier are New Continent Honda, Zhejiang Luyuan, Dongguan Tailing and other enterprises; The third echelon is Jiangsu Xinri, Dazhi, Lifan, Qianjiang, Huaihai, Bashi New Energy, Jinyi, Lewo and so on. But speaking as a whole, the market of our motorcycle presents the situation of "one super strong".
From the fuel motorcycle point of view, there are many enterprises, the industry is more dispersed, the market concentration is low. Data show that in 2022, major enterprises in China's fuel motorcycle sales are Da Changjiang, Longxin, New Continent Honda, Zongshen, Wuyang-Honda, Luoyang North, Chongqing De Chengwei, Guangzhou Dayun, Daye, Lifan, accounting for 14%, 9%, 7%, 6%, 5%, 4%, 4%, 4%, 3%, 3% respectively.
From the perspective of electric motorcycle, the market concentration of electric motorcycle industry is high. Data show that in 2022, Yadi Technology Group, Zhejiang Luyuan, Dongguan Tailing, Jiangsu Xinri, Zongshen Group, Huaihai, Bashi New Energy, Jinyi, Rewo, Longxin are the top ten enterprises of electric motorcycle sales in China; Yadi Technology Group has 61 percent of the market, followed by Zhejiang Luyuan with 9 percent.
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