market dynamics
Safety standards for motorcycle helmets
Release date:2020.12.02

China's road law clearly requires drivers to wear helmets that meet safety specifications before they can drive on the road.

In fact, wearing helmets is not only a legal issue, but more importantly, to protect the personal safety of riders. There is no doubt that helmets are one of the most important riding protective equipment.

In particular, I think the only topic that we can talk about when it comes to helmet safety is full helmets. Everything else, such as half-helmets and melon - skin helmets, seems to me not to be discussed.

Helmet is a very complex thing, see my article friends who can explain why the helmet price gap is so large? Why can the protection performance be so much worse?

The technology content of helmet is quite high, all kinds of circumstances should be taken into consideration, just like you buy medicine, the cost of a piece of broken medicine may not even a penny, but why is it so expensive? Research and development, experimentation, and testing are the biggest costs.

In the case of the helmet, I just said you can't tell why it's expensive, the only thing you can see intuitively is the shape and brand of the helmet.

But as far as safety is concerned, is it any good to look good and be tough? So I'm going to talk more about helmet safety certification.

On the back of your helmet, you will often see the words "DOT, JIS, OR SG, ECE, CCC, CNS, AS/NZ, SHARP, SNELL, FRHPhe", all of which are safety specifications.

Each country and region has a set of specifications and standards for helmets, which are allowed to be sold in the country and region only if they meet these standards.


For example, DOT stands for US helmet safety standard, JIS or SG stands for Japanese helmet safety standard, ECE stands for EU helmet safety standard, CCC stands for China helmet safety standard, AS/NZ1698 stands for Australian helmet safety standard. Other smaller places do not need to set a specific standard, so they take one of the above standards as their own standard.

Please note that standards such AS DOT, JIS, ECE, CCC, AS/NZ are the foundation of the foundation and are the minimum standards that countries and regions require of a particular product.

If your helmet doesn't meet any of these standards, you're either buying a fake, a fake, or a fake. Please take responsibility for your own life.

Briefly introduce the two standard basic test indicators.

DOT test specifications:

1. Secondary impact

First time: 1.72m-1.96m hit the plane anvil. Impact velocity 20.9km/h-22.3km/h

The second time: 1.28m-1.49m hit the hemisphere anvil. Impact velocity 18km/h-19.4km/h

2. Impact location: DOT test area

3. Maximum impact force :400G. Maximum sustained impact :200G<2 ms, 150G<4 ms

4. Puncture impact test height :3m

ECE test specifications:

1. Single impact :2.87m hits the plane anvil. The impact velocity was 27km/h

2. Impact location :ECE test area, total 6 points

3. Maximum impact force :<275G

You don't understand, do you? Just like car engine technology, it's ok for you to talk about it as a hobby, but do you need to understand it thoroughly? Knowing how to use it, knowing how to choose it is good enough.

The impact test

Puncture testing

Ok, so that's all for the less useful parts. Now let's talk about what's really useful to us. In addition to these basic mandatory certification standards, there are also some more stringent helmet safety standards from civil organizations around the world, which can directly reflect the safety standards of a certain type of helmet. You can understand the current zhonggran bao test. With these criteria, it makes sense to compare the choice of helmet.

SNELL and SHARP standards are the ones we see most often, and now the latest is the FRHPhe standard. Don't think that these tests differ much from the mandatory certification standards mentioned above. The difference is not so much, but the test needs to meet much more stringent standards.

Oh, and by the way, all tests are not measured in terms of helmet integrity, but in terms of helmet protection for your head. Specifically, the size of the impact received and the consequences of the impact were measured by sensors in the simulated human head inside the helmet under various conditions.

SNELL standards

Let's talk about SNELL standards: It's a foundation in memory of race car driver William Pete SNELL. After Snell was killed in a racing accident in 1956 due to a faulty helmet, the following year a group of medical and legal scholars established the Snell Foundation, a nonprofit organization focused on advancing helmet safety regulations. So far, the most comprehensive test covering all helmet brands and models is the SNELL test.

At present, SNELL standard starts with M, SA, K, S and E, and the test standard is updated every five years, making it the most stringent standard in the world. The latest standard that we have access to right now is SNELL M2020D.

To be specific, M is the safety standard for motorcycle helmets, SA is the safety standard for racing motorcycle helmets, K is the safety standard for go-kart helmets, S is the safety standard for skiing helmets, and E is the safety standard for equestrian helmets.

Helmets that participate in SNELL standard testing can be voluntarily submitted for testing by manufacturers, and the SNELL Foundation will also buy various helmets on the market from time to time for testing.

It is particularly important to note that the checked helmets should be available in each market size at first, and 5 helmets of each size should be sent for testing at one time, among which 4 are for testing and 1 is for sample storage. Please note that some helmets may fail the SNELL test if the large size fails. Again, briefly talk about SNELL's test specifications as above.

SNELL test project:

1. Head shape determination and helmet positioning

2. External visual field determination

3. Impact test

4. Flip test

5. Jaw fastness

6. Mandibular integrity

7. Shell puncture test

8. Impact absorption capacity test of buffer layer

9. Mask test

10. Fire test

Please note that the cheaper the helmet or our traditional homemade helmets are not necessarily safe. Quite a few domestic helmets are SNELL certified; It's not that imported helmets that are more expensive and taller are necessarily safer. For example, AGVs don't participate in SNELL certification at all.

SHARP standard

The SHARP standard is the only one with contrast functionality today. In 2007, the SHARP Safety helmet testing program was introduced in the UK, attempting to link accident research data with laboratory-based helmet testing methods and present them in a simple data presentation that makes it easier for our buyers to understand and enable our buyers to make informed choices to ensure the safety of our new helmets and drivers.

Prior to SHARP's test, we didn't know whether a 100-dollar helmet would withstand impact better or worse than a thousand-dollar ARAI or SHOEI.

It is important to note, however, that there are far fewer helmets tested with SHARP standard than SNELL standard.

It is worth noting that SHARP test is different from our zhongpei test.

All the car insurance companies spend money together to buy the lowest matching various models on the market to do the crash test. There is no one manufacturer to send the test process, which avoids the "special car" provided by many manufacturers for the test, so it is very representative and authentic.

Different from SNELL and ZHONGbao test, SHARP test rarely buys helmets for testing. Currently, helmet manufacturers take the initiative to test the commercially available helmets to the inspection institution. After the test, SHARP's official website will also test the market price of helmets in a standard way.

This is embarrassing because it is clear that many expensive helmets do not have high safety stars (SHARP's test score is rated on a star scale, with a top five and a bottom four being considered unsafe), so many manufacturers are not so keen on SHARP.

In addition, SHARP only tests full circular helmets, and the rest of the helmet, pull helmet, off-road helmet, half helmet, and melon skin helmet I mentioned above are completely off the mark. SHARP's test organization did not think any of these had anything to do with safety.

So, SHARP standard helmets are less likely to pass the SNELL test. But just because a high-end, big-name helmet didn't pass the SHARP standard doesn't mean it's not safe, either because it wasn't tested or because it wasn't a rounded helmet.

FRHPhe standard

FIM stands for International Motorcycle Racing Association, also known domestically as the Federation Internationale de Moguls. FIM is in charge of the world's top motorcycle events, such as Moto GP and WSBK, which is equivalent to the FIA (in charge of F1, FE, Le Mans 24 and other international events).

The FIM Has officially launched FRHPhe (FIM Racing Homologation Program for Helmets Safety Certification) in 2019.

All helmets of drivers participating in FIM events are required to pass FRHPhe's safety standards. Existing helmets, whether or not you have previously passed SNELL, SHARP or other certification standards, will need to be re-tested before they can be used for racing.

The FIM test method is to select 22 test points in the helmet and randomly select 13 of them for testing.

Assess the degree of skull fracture prevention, EPS and lining buffering function, and puncture resistance tests. FRHPhe is more stringent than SNELL and SHARP in terms of safety standards. Since this standard is mainly aimed at the world's highest level of motorcycle sports, the helmets that can pass the FRHPhe standard can be said to be the safest motorcycle helmets in the world.